Apache indian saying

Photo of Geronimo
Apache leader Geronimo (right)
is depicted with a small group of followers in northern Mexico in 1886.
Taken by C. S. Fly.
It is better to have less thunder in the mouth and more lightning in the hand.
Warriors from left to right: Yanozha (Geronimos´s brother-in-law), Chappo (Geronimo´s son of 2nd wife) and Fun (Yanozha´s half brother) and Geronimo in 1886.
Source: Arizona Historical Society


Ho-Chunk, (Hocąk) Winnebago Tribe

Ho-Chunk, (Hocąk) Winnebago Tribe
Standing Buffalo Winnebago Tribe 1865

A man must make his own arrows. - Winnebago saying

The Ho-Chunk, (Hocąk) sometimes called Winnebago, are a Siouan-speaking tribe of
Native Americans.  "Ho Chunk Elders say that history begins with the creation of all things on earth. They say that Ho Chunk means "People of the Big Voice," or "People of the Sacred Language." Ho Chunks have always occupied lands in Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Nebraska, South Dakota and Minnesota." Ho Chunk Nation

Standing Buffalo Ho-Chunk, (Hocąk) Winnebago Tribe
Another image of Standing Buffalo


A Yurok saying

Fishing for smelt in the surf - Trinidad Yurok

When you die, you will be spoken of as those in the sky, like the stars. - Yurok saying.



 1 photogravure : brown ink : 1923


The North American Indian (1907-1930) v.13, The Hupa. The Yurok. The Karok. The Wiyot. Tolowa and Tututni. The Shasta. The Achomawi. The Klamath [Seattle] : E.S. Curtis


Navajo saying

Navajo image and quote
Six Navajo on horseback, ca. 1904
Library of Congress. Edward S. Curtis collection
Coyote is always out there waiting, and Coyote is always hungry. 
Navajo quote.


Sioux saying

Sioux Chiefs, c.1905, Edward S. Curtis Collection
 Sioux Chiefs, c.1905,
Washington, DC Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.,
Edward S. Curtis Collection
A people without a history is like the wind over buffalo grass.
Sioux saying


Cheyenne saying

Lone chief - Cheyenne.
 Hand printed on housing folder: Black Wolf.
Edward S. Curtis Collection (Library of Congress).

A danger foreseen is half avoided.
Cheyenne saying.


An Apache. 1880.

An Apache. Photo by F.A. Hartwell, Phoenix, AZ. 1880 Source - Library of Congress
Even your silence holds a sort of prayer.
Apache proverb.

Photograph shows head-and-shoulders portrait of an Apache man, facing front, wearing a bandana around his neck.

Created / Published
Phoenix, A.T. : F.A. Hartwell, [between 1880 and 1890]

-  Title from item.
-  Stamp on back: "St. Claire & Pratt, Stationers and Jewelers, Phoenix, Arizona."
-  No. 5.
-  Written in pencil on back: "Included in: 1890, Apr. 7 letter, D. Dorchien to E.W. Halford."
-  Forms part of : Visual materials from the Benjamin Harrison papers.

Source: Library of Congress


Geronimo's camp before surrender to General Crook, March 27, 1886

"Geronimo's camp before surrender to General Crook, March 27, 1886: Geronimo and Natches mounted; Geronimo's son (Perico) standing at his side holding baby."

Photo copyrighted by C. S. Fly. No. 171. (see stamp on image) - This image is available from the United States Library of Congress's Prints and Photographs division.

C.S. Fly was Camillus "Buck" Sydney Fly (May 2, 1849 – October 12, 1901) a photographer in Tombstoe Arizona, who captured the only known images of Geronimo before he surrendered.

This image and others were printed in C. S. FLY AT CAÑON DE LOS EMBUDOS: American Indians as Enemy in the Field A Photographic First by Jay Van Orden        
The Journal of Arizona History
Vol. 30, No. 3 (Autumn, 1989), pp. 319-346
CAÑON DE LOS EMBUDOS translates to Canyon of the Funnels in Mexico.
In 1886 C. S. Fly accompanied General George Crook into the Sierra Madre Mountains and to the Canyon de Los Embudos. Crook held a peace conference with the Apache leader Geronimo and his people. His photos of Geronimo and the other Apaches, taken in March, are only the known photographs taken of an American Indian while still at war with the United States.

Huachuca Illustrated - Fort Huachuca and the Geronimo Campaign (PDF) it is described how Fly staged the historic photographs:
Tombstone photographer Fly kept busy with his camera, posing his Apache models with a nerve that would have reflected undying glory on a Chicago drummer. He coolly asked Geronimo and the warriors with him to change positions, and turn their heads or faces, to improve the negative. None of them seemed to mind him in the least except Chihuahua, who kept dodging behind a tree, but at last caught by the dropping of the slide.
In 1905 C.S. Fly's wife Mary “Mollie” née McKie published a collection of her husband's Indian campaign photographs entitled Scenes in Geronimo's Camp: The Apache Outlaw and Murderer. 


Two Sac and Fox Braves

Sac and Fox Nation
Title: Attendees of the 1898 Indian Congress : Two Little Braves (Sac & Fox)
Creator: Frank A. Rinehart (1861-1928)
Date created: 1898-1899
One of the prominent Indian tribes in Illinois were the Fox and Sacs (Sauk)
Description: Rinehart, a commercial photographer in Omaha, Nebraska, was commissioned to photograph the 1898 Indian Congress, part of the Trans-Mississippi International Exposition. More than five hundred Native Americans from thirty-five tribes attended the conference, providing the gifted photographer and artist an opportunity to create a stunning visual document of Native American life and culture at the dawn of the 20th century. Although the portraits are posed and artistically lighted in his studio, they have a candid intimacy that allows his subjects individuality and dignity, a quality not shared by most 19th-century ethnographic photography.
Rinehart printed the photographs as platinum prints, a photographic medium known for its delicate tonal range and permanence.

Sac and Fox Nation: The Meskwaki (sometimes spelled Mesquakie) were called Fox by Anglo-Americans and name Sauk was anglicised to Sac. They were two distinct tribes from the Northeast woodland area with a similar languages and culture.  It was not until 1734 that the Sac and Fox tribes joined in an alliance and extended westward beyond the Mississippi. Under US government recognition treaties, officials treat the two tribes as a single political unit.
The Northeastern Woodlands (dark green) includes
the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada

"The Sac and Fox culture is based upon respect for the life within themselves, their families, their communities, and all of creation. The Creator gave this way of life to the Sac and Fox people. The culture is the way things are done in relation to each other and all of creation. The Sac and Fox way of life is spiritually-based. They seek the guidance of the Creator in how to live. The oldest continuing religious practices are ceremonies like clan feasts, namings, adoptions, and burials." Sac & Fox Nation

1857 photograph of the "Mesquakie Indians responsible for the establishment of the Meskwaki Settlement" in Tama County, Iowa, Minnesota Historical Society.