Creator: Frank A. Rinehart (1861-1928)
Date created: 1898-1899
One of the prominent Indian tribes in Illinois were the Fox and Sacs (Sauk)
Description: Rinehart, a commercial photographer in Omaha, Nebraska, was commissioned to photograph the 1898 Indian Congress, part of the Trans-Mississippi International Exposition. More than five hundred Native Americans from thirty-five tribes attended the conference, providing the gifted photographer and artist an opportunity to create a stunning visual document of Native American life and culture at the dawn of the 20th century. Although the portraits are posed and artistically lighted in his studio, they have a candid intimacy that allows his subjects individuality and dignity, a quality not shared by most 19th-century ethnographic photography.
Rinehart printed the photographs as platinum prints, a photographic medium known for its delicate tonal range and permanence.
Sac and Fox Nation: The Meskwaki (sometimes spelled Mesquakie) were called Fox by Anglo-Americans and name Sauk was anglicised to Sac. They were two distinct tribes from the Northeast woodland area with a similar languages and culture. It was not until 1734 that the Sac and Fox tribes joined in an alliance and extended westward beyond the Mississippi. Under US government recognition treaties, officials treat the two tribes as a single political unit.
|The Northeastern Woodlands (dark green) includes |
the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada
"The Sac and Fox culture is based upon respect for the life within themselves, their families, their communities, and all of creation. The Creator gave this way of life to the Sac and Fox people. The culture is the way things are done in relation to each other and all of creation. The Sac and Fox way of life is spiritually-based. They seek the guidance of the Creator in how to live. The oldest continuing religious practices are ceremonies like clan feasts, namings, adoptions, and burials." Sac & Fox Nation
|1857 photograph of the "Mesquakie Indians responsible for the establishment of the Meskwaki Settlement" in Tama County, Iowa, Minnesota Historical Society.|