Friday

Ojibwe women and children

Ojibwe
Ponemah, Roland W. Reed, 1908
Ojibwe woman with papoose
Papoose Pack-a-Back, Roland W. Reed, 1908
Ojibwe Indian
A 1908 Roland Reed photo of an Ojibwe woman tapping for maple syrup
Ojibwe Indian by Roland Reed
Chief's Daughters, Roland W. Reed, 1908
Ojibwe Indian by Roland Reed
Everywind, Roland W. Reed, 1907

 
All of these photographs are the work of Roland W. Reed, in 1907 and 1908 and published in the book Alone with the Past: The Life and Photographic Art of Roland W. Reed, in 2012.

Saturday

Native american indian musical instruments

 Apache native american indian instrument
Chasi, a Warm Springs Apache musician playing the Apache fiddle, 1886.
Photo by A. Frank Randall
Chasi, an Apache musician, playing the "Apache fiddle" a single stringed instrument made from the tubular century plant. Chasi is from Chíhéne (Tchi-he-nde), also known as the ‘Red Painted People’, known as Warm Springs Apache Band. He was Bonito's Son, the Chiricahua chief. (see Chiricahua Apache americans) 
 

Native Americans considered music to be a gift from the Creator. Popular instruments were drums, rattles made from gourds or horn or turtles, drumsticks, rasp, whistle, bullroarer, and flutes. The apache fiddle is a rare instrument among other native American tribes besides Apache.
 
rattle made from turtle


Apache Bull Roarer
Apache Bull Roarer (tzi-ditindi, "sounding wood")
J.W. Powell, Director - Ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1887-'88. Washington, D.C. 1892


 Water drums, used by Iroquois, Navajo, Cherokee, Creek, and Apache, contained some water to create a unique sound. They were considered sacred drums.
native american indian water drum
Water drum
The Ojibwa, Ottawa and Pottawatomii called them midegwakikoon.

They were usually made by hollowing out the middle of a wooden log and tightening a wet animal hide over the opening and attaching it to the drum which had some water inside. Each drum created a unique sound because the amount of water varied. Wyandot and Seneca/Cayuga traditionally used a groundhog skin (daˀyęh) for the drum covering and other tribes used deer skin or other hides.
Peyote Drummer by Edward S Curtis 1927
Peyote Drummer by Edward S Curtis 1927


Native American Indian with Headdress and Drum
Native American Indian with Headdress and Drum; image shows Native American Indian dressed in traditional costume and playing drum. SOURCE Calisphere
Native American Indians plays a flute
Thurlow Lieurance with three Native American Indians, one of whom plays a courting flute
Dayton C. Miller Photograph Collection
Library of Congress, Music Division, Washington
Provenance: Thurlow Lieurance, Lincoln, Nebraska, 29 May 1922.

 

Thomas Edison produced these films in his Black Maria studio New Jersey in 1894.  The Native Americans performed the buffalo dance at the studio, so in that sense it is 'staged', but the date is authentic - 24th September 1894.

SOURCES:
  • Native American Music
  • Depasquale, Paul; Eigenbrod, Renate; and Larocque, Emma; eds. (2009). Across Cultures/Across Borders: Canadian Aboriginal and Native American Literatures, unpaginated. Broadview.
  • Nichols, John D. (1995). A Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe, p.88. U of Minnesota.

Friday

Nez Perce boy

Nez Perce boy photograph
Title: Nez Perce boy, Colville Indian Reservation, Washington, ca. 1903.
Photographer Latham, Edward H. Studio Location United States-Washington (State)-Nespelem.
Notes: Young boy stands outside on blanket. He wears feathers and decorations in his hair, long shirt over leggings, beaded moccasins, necklaces, bracelet, vest, and leather pouch attached to belt. A sash with ornaments is draped across his chest.

Wednesday

Cree Beliefs and Spirituality

Cree native american indian beliefs
Images part of the Canadian Copyright Collection held by the British Library, and digitised as part of the "Picturing Canada" project.

Realize that we as human beings have been put on this earth for only a short time and that we must use this time to gain wisdom, knowledge, respect and understanding for all human beings, since we are all relatives. – Cree proverb


The Cree, is a North American indian tribe that was prominent in the past and now the largest First Nations group in Canada, with a thriving Algonquin language.

The Cree are a race with strong spiritual values that are imbedded in their culture and the respect they have for others and the earth.

The concept of Mother Earth in the Cree worldview is about the interconnectedness of all things - not just the earth and humans but also all of the animals, plants and minerals. They believe that all living beings and some inanimate objects have spirits or "manitowak"

They speak of a "Great Spirit"  - misimanito - that is part of all activities in life and an "Evil Spirit" - macimanito-w.

Through dreams and visions, Cree secure the help of powerful spirits in activities such as hunting. Feasts and dancing are held following successful hunts.
 
The primary Cree values are:
  1. Wâhkôhtowin – kinship
  2. Mîyo wîcêhtôwin – getting along together
  3. Mâmahwohkamâtowin – working cooperatively
  4. Manâtisiwin and manâhcihitowin – respect for self and respect for each other
  5. Pîkiskwêstamowêwin – speaking on behalf of others
  6. Kiskinwahasimôwêwin – accepting guidance
  7. Kiskanowapâhkêwin – a keen sense of observation
  8. Nanahihtamowin – obedience, to listen with an open heart
  9. Kisêwâtisiwin – compassion, loving kindness
  10. Tâpwêwin and kanâcisowin – honesty and clean living
  11. Wîcihitowin – sharing
  12. Okihtowihiwêwin – generosity
  13. Tapâtêyimisôwin and êkakistêyimisowin – humility
A. W. Gelston - This image is part of the Canadian Copyright Collection held by the British Library, and has been digitised as part of the "Picturing Canada" project. 1913.
SOURCES:
  • Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 6, Subarctic. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 1981.
  • Cree Language and Culture 9Y Guide to Implementation (4–6) 2009 Alberta Education, Canada.
  • WIKIPEDIA: images



Cherokee Prayer

O' GREAT SPIRIT
help me always
to speak the truth quietly,
to listen with an open mind
when others speak,
and to remember the peace
that may be found in silence.

Cherokee dance, 1897,
associated with the native game of stickball, in North Carolina.
Photograph by James Mooney.

 
Cherokee boy and girl in costume on reservation, North Carolina.
Photographed by John K. Hillers, Jr., June 1939.
   



Sunday

Zuni

The Zuni people are a tribe of Pueblo Native Americans in the United States.
The name Zuni, in the native language, is A:shiwi; which was previously spelled Zuñi.

“Group of Zuni Indian “Braves,” at their Pueblo, New Mexico.”Expedition of 1873
      Geographical Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian.
T.H. O’Sullivan, Photographer.
 
Zuni
Two Zuni Indian Girls.
1903 photograph by Edward S. Curtis



zuni
A Zuni pueblo: "A corner of Zuni",  photograph by Edward S. Curtis.




Zuni history
“Gardens surround the Indian Pueblo of Zuni,
in which are raised a variety of vegetables, such as pepper, onions, garlic &c.”
1873 Expedition Geology of National Parks, T.H. O’Sullivan, Photographer.
Library of Congress
 
 Archaeology suggests that the Zuni have been farmers in their present location for 3,000 to 4,000 years raising primarily corn, squash, beans, and other vegetables such as peppers, garlic and onions. Their agriculture, with their ingenious systems of irrigation, meant the Zuni could grow the grains maize and wheat. This led to the growth of their population and the development of large pueblos.
 
See more Zuni images

Monday

WELCOME in native American languages

how to say WELCOME in native American languages

Wachiya: Cree
Tanyan Yahi: Lakota 
Gvlieliga: Cherokee ᎤᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ (ulihebisdi) 
Yah Aninaah: Navajo yáʼátʼééh
aaniin: Ojibway
Halito: Choctaw
keshi: Zuni

I am trying to add the word WELCOME in many native American languages. If you know any or wish to add a correction please leave the information in comments here or on facebook.

IMAGE: Rock-It Creations

Thursday

Navajo blanket weaver

Navajo woman weaving
Blanket weaver - Navaho (from The North American Indian; v.01).

Description by Edward S. Curtis: The Navaho-land blanket looms are in evidence everywhere. In the winter months they are set up in the hogans, but during the summer they are erected outdoors under an improvised shelter, or, as in this case, beneath a tree. The simplicity of the loom and its product are here clearly shown, pictured in the early morning light under a large cottonwood. NOTES 1 photogravure : brown ink ; 35 x 43 cm. Original photogravure produced in Boston by John Andrew & Son, c1904. Original source: The Apache. The Jicarillas. The Navaho [portfolio] ; plate no. 34 Seattle : E.S. Curtis, 1907.
Northwestern University Library, Edward S. Curtis's 'The North American Indian': the Photographic Images,

Saturday

Crow Indian Chiefs

Crow Indian Chiefs in Montana

Crow Indian Chiefs, captured at Custer Battlefield, Montana, Nov.7th and imprisoned at Fort Snelling, Minnesota. Nov. 15th 1887.
[Crazy-Head, Looks-with-his-Ears, Rock, The-Man-that-carries-his-food, Bank, Deaf Bull, Big-Hail-Stone, and Crazy-Head's Son].

This photo was taken between circa and circa

Friday

Chief Severo and family

public domain family Ute Indian portrait from 1800's
Chief Severo - Aaron Bear - and family @ 1899 of the Ute tribe
Original copyright in 1899 by the Detroit Photographic Company.
This image was obviously taken in black and white and retouched later.

Sadly not much is known about Chief Severo except that he was Ute Captain of Indian Police and this is only known from a photograph in the Denver Public Library Digital Collections which states that fact. In that photo he is wearing a metal badge which reads "Indian Police".
During the 1880's Indian police performed all law enforcement duties on their own reservations.  These police forces first appeared when the federal government relocated tribes to Indian Territory.
Captain Severo's duties would have included maintaining law and order, maintaining the jail, and being a scout.

REFERENCE: Encyclopedia of The Great Plains